Filed in Story collection.
Last week I ran a workshop for an investment firm to help their senior leaders appreciate their role in fostering their culture.
Never mind, I thought, I would just get the participants to use these stories to trigger other more impactful stories.
On the day of the workshop, to my pleasant surprise, the 50 leaders were highly engaged with their stories.
It was a great reminder that people love to hear the stories from their colleagues no matter how small because each person carries with them a multitude of background books that fill in all the gaps and bring each small story to life.
It reinforced my belief that working at the small 's' end of the story spectrum is not only quite different to most practitioners, it has an enormous impact.
During my first week here at Anecdote I sat in on an Anecdote Circle at a large Government Department here at Melbourne. It was the first time I had seen one of these run by Shawn and I was therefore very keen to see how he did it, and anything I could pick up and and use myself in the future.
One of the things I noticed quite early on was that Shawn would start by asking one of the pre-prepared, scripted questions and if he did not get him any stories from the group, he would follow it up by turning the more formal question into one that contained an idiom. So "Think of a time when you saw somebody manage (x) roles in a way that made you think, "Wow. If everybody worked that way, things would got a lot more smoothly around here". Got followed up with; "when have things gone as smooth as clock work?". There were many more examples of this throughout the session, and each time it seemed to get great results at eliciting stories.
When I raised it with Shawn afterwards he wasn't even aware he used this as a a technique, but in talking it through and making him aware of it, he began to realise he used it all the time. He even told me a story that Mark had told him of doing some story elicitating work and asking; "When have you been most elated at work, or most disappointed?" He got a load of blank stares and shaking of heads, until one of the guys piped up; "We don't get 'elated' or 'disappointed' we either get 'stoked or 'gutted'".
I think the use of idioms and slang work in eliciting stories for a number of reasons. They give a far greater richness than can be delivered from just words alone. 'Gutted' has a far greater impact than 'disappointed' for example, it has a far greater emotional reaction. Also by using the right idioms for that audience it shows them you are 'talking their language' therefore building rapport, trust and the relationship. It shows you understand them and are part of their 'community'. It also increases your chances of the question being understood.
This technique really came to the fore when we started collecting stories at a large electricity generating company. We were doing this out in these huge power stations, with he guys (and they were mainly guys) dressed in their work boots and protective clothing, with a natural distrust of us as "city boys". Using idioms and slang in the majority of our questions really worked as a way to get them to tell stories. It put them at ease, used language and terms they understood, and created a degree of informality that seemed to help them to tell stories.
We have also used this insight into some of the questions we have developed for eliciting family stories in Zahmoo, which can be found in the 'Online Resources'. Examples of using idioms include things like; "Do you remember a time when Mum or Dad went through the roof over something you did?", "What was something your spouse has done that just blew you away?", "Did you ever get off on the wrong foot with someone who then became a good friend?" or "Have you ever been at death's door?".
We also have used slang to get people to recall moments and tell stories about them. Examples include; "When did you really come a gutser as a kid?" or "What did you put the kibosh on that you wished you hadn’t?'.
I would therefore strongly recommend trying to consciously use idioms and slang when asking questions to elicit stories. The results I have seen in different settings, groups and people have proven to me they really do work as a way to help people recall moments, and therefore be able to tell stories about them. Go on, have a crack!
Filed in Story collection.
If you read this blog there is a good chance you firmly believe in the power of stories. You might have also come to the conclusion, like I have, that it's mighty hard to find stories when you need them. A better strategy is to collect stories when they're told, index them and be able to re-find them when they are needed (see how Joan Rivers does it). You can check out Zahmoo as a way to keep track of your stories.
For this strategy to work you need to be places where stories are told. Better still, you need to create the conditions for stories to be told.
Here are five conditions that are important for stories to be told.
- A caring listener. The person listening to the stories cares about and is interested in them. People have a finely tuned sense of whether others care about what they are saying and if they detect disdain or even a little boredom they'll truncate their stories or just stop altogether.
- Free time. Remember those times when you had a long road trip with a friend or colleague and the stories you heard. Stories seem to emerge when we are not under pressure or constrained by formality. Loose meeting agendas are more likely to encourage stories than highly structured gatherings.
- Common ground. A while back I called my brother. He lives in Arizona. He's a wine salesman (a bloody good one) and he was telling me what a talented sales manager he has. I asked him to share an example of what this talented guy did. My brother hesitated. In fact he kept giving me high level descriptions rather than a story. Then I realised I didn't share his wine sales rep knowledge and might not appreciate (or get) his story. So I said, "just pretend I'm an experienced wine guy." He then shared a great example. Common knowledge and language is needed at some level before stories are shared.
- Tell stories. Stories beget stories. One of the best ways to encourage someone to share a story is to tell one yourself.
- Memorabilia. One of my most enjoyable projects involved helping an energy company collect stories from retiring specialists. One was Mike, the network controller. His job was to keep tabs on the entire electricity grid and solve problems as they happened. His office was filled with maps, computer screens and whiteboards filled with notes and sketches. Storytelling was easy for him. He would grab a map of the grid and tell me the story of how a substation went down and how they fixed it. Unfortunately Mike retired before we had finished the story collection but he invited me to his home a couple of months after retiring to finish the job. We were in his lounge room with pictures of his family on the wall and keepsakes from overseas trips on shelves. When we got started I quickly discovered he struggled to tell me his work stories and when he did have one they weren't as rich with detail as the ones from his office. Picking places and artefacts that remind people of their stories can make all the difference.
What others would you add to this list?
Thanks to Kevin Bishop for the excellent conversation yesterday that sparked these ideas.
For all our blog readers thanks for your patience. We realise we've been less active on our blog than usual. The thing is, there's been a little project on our plate called Zahmoo that's been keeping us busy.
Today we've released the first public viewing of Zahmoo. It'll soon be released into the wild--how exciting!. The place to get the very latest information and be the first to be invited to use Zahmoo will be those good folk who are following @zahmoo on twitter.
I recently read a fascinating account of how story collection made a real difference in America winning the Second World War (or at least their part in it). Rob Yeung tells the story about the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) and the psychologist John C. Flanagan in his recent book The Extra One Per Cent.
In June, 1941the USAAF was created as part of the USA's preparations for being involved in the Second World War. Less than six months later the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the USAAF was immediately ordered to ramp up its number of pilots, not by hundreds, or thousands, but by tens of thousands.
However, more men were being shot down than were being trained. Thousands of cadets were killed during training accidents every year, while thousands more were dropped for not being good enough. You can imagine that the decision to drop a trainee from flight school wasn't taken lightly. It was incredibly expensive to recruit and train new recruits only to kick them out, and the Air Force desperately needed every pilot they could create.
The USAAF began to look at why pilots were being rejected and the reasons given on documentation produced by the expert tutors were things like, "poor judgement", "insufficient progress" or even lack of "inherent flying ability." But what did such phrases mean? No one knew exactly, and certainly these explanations were not good enough to avoid recruiting the wrong kind of candidates.
To address this issue the USAAF hired civilian psychologist John C. Flanagan. He quickly realised that most people, whether the trainee pilots themselves or the highly experienced instructors, were almost useless at explaining what contributed to even phenomenal success or dreadful failure. He wrote: "Too often, statements regarding job requirements are merely lists of all the desirable traits of human beings. These are practically no help in selecting, classifying or training individuals for specific jobs." (1)
So Flanagan started to focus on getting people to talk about specific episodes of either triumph or failure, in forensic detail, with a particular focus on what they did, what they said, and what they were thinking at the time. Rather than asking for general opinions as to why people think they succeed or fail, Flanagan (and his army of over 150 psychologists and 1,000 assistants) solicited descriptions of what they did in the past. Rather than asking; "What do you do?" or "What do you think you do?", the emphasis became "What did you do?"
Flanagan's work make a tangible contribution to the war effort by allowing the USAAF to make better recruitment decisions, turning away more candidates who were unlikely to make it through pilot training or perhaps even more likely to kill themselves in the process. For his effort he was awarded the Legion of Merit for the outstanding contribution that he and his team made towards winning the war.
This story for me underpins a lot about what initially attracted me to Anecdote. Having an approach built around really understanding and making sense of what is going on through collecting real life, specific examples before rushing straight to solutions is one that just seems to make sense for me. It also reminds me of the power of making things concrete, and how abstractions, opinions and beliefs can 'get in the way' of understanding and clarity.
This USAAF/Flanagan story is certainly one I will be telling in the future to help make the point about the power story collection can have.
(1) Flanagan, J. C. (Ed.). (1947). The aviation psychology program in the Army Air Force (Research Report 1). Washington, DC: US Army Air Forces Aviation Psychology Program
How do you remember so many stories? I get this question a lot and for some time I didn't really know the answer. I certainly believe stories are important, that they are memorable, help you connect with your audience and all the other many benefits we talk about on this blog. But how does one remember the right story when you need it? In the last few of months I worked out a critical element.
We've been working with the Victorian Bushfire Recontruction and Recovery Authority (VBRRA) for a number of months now and back in July I facilitated an event of 200+ Community Recovery Committee (CSC) leaders to help them better connect across their 33 CSCs. We helped them share their stories to make new connections.
In preparation for the event I met with Christine Nixon (then VBRRA Chairman) and Ben Hubbard (CEO) and described our story-based approach and ask whether they would like to share a story or two with me. Christine told me this.
In the first few weeks of the fires I was in Narbethong at the Black Spur Inn. I met a team from OPSM who were helping people with lost glasses and other sight problems. They told me about one elderly couple that had come to see them. The man was technically blind from diabetes. The lady had smoke damaged eyes. The OPSM team examined them both and decided the man should see an opthalmic specialist for a fresh opinion on his eye problems. Technology had changed considerably since he lost his vision and new procedures were available. They arrange the visit and ultimately this resulted in surgery that dramatically improved his vision, so much that care was no longer needed.
After hearing this story I was out in the corridor talking to Deb, who worked with Christine, and asked what the story meant for her. Deb said that it was an example of how good things can come out of terrible situations. She also said it showed that corporate involvement can make a difference. For me I thought it was an example of how small things can make a big difference. And then it struck me, this is an important practice for remembering stories: you need to ask yourself what an experience or story means, what's the point of this story?
But knowing the point of a story doesn't guarantee you'll remember it. It does, however, provide a trigger for the story to be retold and the retelling reinforces those synaptic pathways that help you remember the story.
This experience made me realise that I often ring Mark (my business partner) and tell him a story I've just heard and we talk about the point of the story and when we might retell it. Inadvertently we had created a story remembering practice.
Yes, we also record our stories, albeit briefly. And The Story Finder helps. But there is nothing better to be able to illustrate a point with an example on the fly and having these stories in your head makes all the difference
I didn't realise it at the time but when we started this blog back in 2004 we were creating a type of story bank where we could go back and retrieve great stories to tell. Recently we have made this more accessible with Story Finder. We have an even more sophisticated system we use internally that allows us to manage the many stories we collect with our clients.
So I'm facinated how people manage their stories and enjoyed this short clip from a documentary about Joan Rivers on how she keeps track of all her jokes. I'm so happy we started in a digital age and don't have to maintain a card catalogue. Love to hear how you organise your stories, if you do.
Thanks to @makingstories for the link to the Joan Rivers clip
Telling, telling, telling ... So many in the field of story work focus on storytelling. Sure, telling a good story at the right time has impact. But storytelling represents a mere fraction of what can be done with business stories.
Here is one little example.
Last year I had a call from Kirstyn. She works in HR for a large engineering firm. Kirstyn runs a program for their graduate employees to build their skills over three years. This firm has some or the world's engineering and scientific experts and the graduate employees get the opportunity to work shoulder to shoulder with these experts on some amazing projects. The thing is, the graduates often don't make the most of it because they rarely get to hear what these experts have actually done in their careers. Why? Because they graduates are unskilled in asking story-eliciting questions.
So we set about helping about 40 graduate employees learn how to elicit stories from their expert colleagues. And after learning the basics we wheeled in some senior experts as guinea pigs to practice with. It was a great way to practice their new story-listening skills but more importantly it was an opportunity to get to know some of the more senior folk in the firm.
And because we know that people remember what they feel we asked Melbourne Playback Theatre to perform some of the stories the experts shared with the graduates.
Here is one of the stories.
Clare (not her real name) was obviously a driven woman. She was in her mid-forties and had the figure of a marathon runner. Her black hair matched her black outfit. She started her story by telling her graduates that she experienced a turning point in her career because of one particular nightmare project. She was performing a quality assurance role on an engineering project and the client didn't like her. In fact they were hurling abuse at her but she kept telling herself that she was tough and could take it. With every insult she worked harder.
One weekend she decided to visit her parents in the country. As she was walking down the hall of her parents' house she could see her mother's silhouette at the end of the hallway. As she emerged into the light her Mum turn around to see her gaunt and exhausted daughter. All her Mum could say was, "Oh honey, something needs to change." and she gave her daughter a big hug. At that point Clare decided to get balance in her life and get far away from unhealthy work environments.
You could hear a pin drop as the graduates heard Clare tell this story and their jaws dropped when Melbourne Playback Theatre performed the story for everyone.
Troy White has just posted a blog which I think is both very good because it encourages people who don't think they are storytellers to have a go and practice, yet I feel doesn't go far enough because there is a chance readers will not get to a story based on his list of triggers. Mind you I think Troy's story prompters are a great place to start. I would like, however, to make some additions to each one to make doubly sure people tell a story rather than just express their opinion. My additions are in red.
- Pet Peeves and when was the last time you felt peeved by them
- Physical Characteristics (Uniqueness) and the times they helped or hindered
- Core Beliefs and how they unfold in practice
- Politics - when have you felt angry, let down or felt like giving them a standing ovation?
- Birthplace - how did you end up being born there?
- What Are You Pathological About? And where do they emerge? What happened last time?
- Religion - has there ever been a time or moment where you were truly thankful for your beliefs?
- Significant Childhood Events
- Beliefs - have they ever got you in trouble?
- Hobbies - when have you felt proudest of your hobbies?
- Education - has your education made a big difference? What happened?
- Skills - Have you ever had a moment when you were surprised by the skills you have or dismally lack?
- Interests - What's your most boring interest and when have you really bored someone with it?
- Family - What are you most fond of about your family? What's an example?
- Talents - Has a talent ever really made a real difference? What happened?
- Life Events You Remember Most
- Adventures You Will Never Forget
- Incompetence At? Share a time when you were a real klutz.
- Anything You Are A Legend Of? When did your legendom shine?
- Successes - What are the three most memorable successes you remember? Take us through what happened.
- Likes - Tell us the last time one of your real likes jumped out and grabbed you?
- Curiosities - What is the weirdest thing you have ever heard happening?
- Failures - What's your biggest stuff up?
- Dislikes - Have you ever felt repulsed by a dislike? Tell us about it.
- Are People Amazed By Anything You Do Or About You? If yes, what happened?
- What Are You Ambitious About? What Fires You Up? When have you been really fired up? What got you going?
- Self Disciplined About? When have you displayed a monk-like discipline.
- People Are Envious Of You Because _______? When has someone been envious of you?
- Do People Desire What You Have? When have people desired what you have?
To get to a story you need to get to a time and a place. When and where questions are good. Asking what happened works. Just asking for an example can work if you can get people to provide a detailed example. Troy's prompters point us in the right direction for finding our own stories. My additions hopefully will increase the chances that a story will be told.
We start most of our projects by collecting stories. We collect stories in groups (using anecdote circles) and one-on-one. We've learned a lot about getting people comfortable, building trust and asking questions that elicit stories. There's still a lot to learn. A couple of weeks ago something happened while filming stories for a mentoring program we're creating for a client. And since we had a camera at the time we filmed my recollection of what happened.
Time is important and so is your intent.
Paul Cooper over at SMS Consulting Group shared with me this simple way of thinkng about trust.
TRUST = (credibility + reliability + intimacy) / intent
I like it. For one thing, I can remember it and after all the trust-related literature I've read over the years I think it describes the important elements (btw when I first saw the formula depiction I initially recoiled. "Trust can't be a simple formula." I got over it.)
When collecting stories you need to start with a warm up. Back in 2004 I described what the warm up looks like when collecting stories. All those ideas still hold true but I would like to emphasise INTENT. Your storyteller must know you have a good intent and that you will safeguard the stories and the storytellers. . When we collect stories we make it clear how we intend to retell the stories and whether we have their permission.
A couple of weeks ago I attended a teleconference with Doug Lipman on story elicitation (he's running some courses on this topic too). He's also noticed that business books that talk about the importance of questions often neglect story-eliciting questions. There are a few good places to find story-eliciting questions. You can check out our Questions category on this blog. And just yesterday I was reminded by @AmandaFenton about StoryCorps' story collection guide.
Doug's talk cover the 7 things not to do when collecting stories.
1. Don't compromise safety.
Ensure the storyteller understands your goals and how the stories will be used. I've had times when a storyteller has revealed something that could be career-limiting an we have removed the story at their request.
2. Don't show delight
You must be interested in the stories they are telling. If they think you are not interested you end up getting high-level, shortened versions just so they can get it all done and get out of their.
3. Don't enter the imagined world they are creating for you in the story
Your interest and delight will be a function of how much you let the story transport you to the experience they are recounting.
4. Don't be a slave to your questions
Often someone will tell you a story which will prompt new questions and avenues of investigation. You need to listen carefully too because there is nothing worse that asking a question that has already been answered in a previous story.
5. Fail to pursue scenes
The best stories have details. Details create imagery that creates context, adds authenticity and makes the story memorable. So as the interviewer it's important to pursue these specific scenes: one day, in one place, one person, did one thing (OK, that's an exaggeration but you get my drift).
6. To not hypothesise the storyline
I think what Doug meant here is to ask follow up questions in the pursuit of details such as "so that was adversely effecting your relationship?" If that is not the case then your hypothesis was wrong and the storyteller can correct you.
7. Hijacking the story
Taking over the story and telling it your way. I think some trained journalists do this. I was speaking at a conference this year and the facilitator quickly interviewed me so she could introduce me. What I said and then the story she told didn't match in my mind. When this happens the storyteller loses control and is no longer a collaborator in the process.