I just opened the book "Semper and Score: Enhancing Organisational Effectiveness" by Tom Graves and was taken by the elegantly simple answer to this question on page 2. Effectiveness consists of, or arises from, four distinct dimensions, plus another sort-of dimension that ties the others together:
- efficient - makes the best use of available resources
- reliable - can be relied upon to deliver the required results
- elegant - supports the human factors in the context
- appropriate - suports and sustains the overall purpose
- integrated - linked to and supports integration of the whose as whole
I like this sentence as well..."the point here is that efficiency is neither the same as effectiveness, nor separate from it, but a subset of what's needed for overall effectiveness". The book is self published and is available from Tom's website.